Once a friend of mine told me: “I have just sewn an amazing wool skirt with a concealed zipper. But after I washed it, the area around the zipper got distorted and it looks awful now. I just don’t understand what happened.”
One of the main reasons may be the absence of fabric treatment before starting the project.
In this post, I describe how to prepare fabric for sewing so that the result of your sewing effort is long-term pleasing to the eye.
In this tutorial you will learn:
- What is a lengthwise grain?
- What is a crosswise grain?
- What is a selvedge (selvage) line?
- What is a bias?
- How to identify the lengthwise grain using the selvedge line?
- How to identify the lengthwise grain without the selvedge line?
- How to identify the right side of fabric using the selvedge line?
- How to identify the right side of fabric without the selvedge line?
- How to the fabric the way before sewing?
- How to create the perfect rectangle of fabric by pulling threads?
1. Identify the lengthwise, crosswise grain and selvedge line?
What is lengthwise grain (warp)?
Lengthwise grain is a set of yarns that make the length of the fabric. Fabrics on bolts as you can see them in shops are rolled on the lengthwise grain. Almost all of the patterns will ask you to place the pattern pieces along with the lengthwise grain (apart from pattens designed to be sewn on the bias). Therefore, it is important that you learn to identify the lengthwise grain.
What is crosswise grain (weft)?
Crosswise grain or weft are yarns that are perpendicular to the lengthwise grain. They are weaved through the lengthwise grain. Crosswise grain defines the width of the fabric – fabrics are usually 150 cm (59 inch) wide.
What is selvedge line (selvage line)?
The selvedge line is the edge of fabric. Its yarns are usually denser than the rest of the fabric. It’s about 1-2 cm (about 3/8 – 5/8 inch) wide on both sides of the fabric along the lengthwise grain (see the image below).
What is bias?
The bias runs under 45 degrees to the lengthwise grain. Woven fabrics stretch on the bias the most. Bias cut fabric is also used to make bias binding tapes. To learn more about those, read this blog post.
a) How to identify the lengthwise grain using the selvedge line
The selvedge ALWAYS runs along the lengthwise grain (warp) (see the image below).
b) How to identify the lengthwise grain without the selvedge line?
You may run into some pieces of fabric from you previous projects that no longer have their selvedge line. Try to identify the lengthwise grain (warp) in the following way:
- In the direction of the lengthwise grain, the fabric has the minimum stretch.
- Lengthwise yarns are stronger than crosswise yarns.
- In plain weave fabrics, there may be more yarns than in the crosswise grain.
- Stripe prints almost always run along the lengthwise grain.
- In fabric with nap (velvet for example), the nap is turned in the direction of the lengthwise grain.
- Fabric with long ‘wrinkles’ like the pink chiffon in the picture above – the ‘wrinkles’ are on the lengthwise grain.
2. Identify the right side of the fabric
a) How to identify the right side of fabric using the selvedge line?
Before you do anything with the fabric, look thoroughly at its selvedge line to decide which side is the right and the wrong one as sometimes it is not obvious at first sight. On the right side, you can see raised fibres around the little holes along the selvedge line (see the image below).
b) How to identify the right side of fabric without the selvedge line?
Sometimes you might come across some scraps of fabric that no longer have the selvedge line. Try to identify the right side by thorough examination of the fabric.
|With printed pattern||Side with printed pattern and bright colours|
|With nap||Side with the nap|
|Sateen fabrics||Shinier side of the fabric|
|Blends||Sometimes they have a shinier side – that is the right side|
There are also fabrics that look the same from both sides if they have no print, of course. Crystal organza (mirror organza has a really shiny right side), georgette, chiffon and plain weave fabric that has no nap or print for example. In these cases it does not matter which side you choose.
3. Mark the right side and lengthwise grain
A few cm (inch) from the selvedge line, but not directly on it, mark the right side and also the lengthwise grain with a few stitches of basting thread. Make sure to place the marking a few cm (inch) from the cut edge of the fabric. I mark the fabric along the selvedge line like this (see the image below):
I also recommend you to create a marking like this when you are about to store scraps of fabrics which do not have the selvedge line. Pieces of fabric from which you have already removed the selvedge line or cut out pieces from the middle of the fabric. This marking will help you identify the right side as well as the lengthwise grain of the fabric in the future.
4. Pretreat the fabric the way you plan to treat the finished garment
Every time you buy a fabric, certain laundry symbols should come with them. Many fabrics can be both washed (either hand or machine washed) or dry cleaned. Decide, how you are going to treat your finished garment and pre-treat the fabric you have purchased in the very same way .
In case you are going to wash the fabric, never apply higher washing temperature than recommended by the laundry symbol. If a hand wash is required, either hand wash the fabric or machine wash using a special program on your washing machine with a low temperature and a low spin speed.
I always wash the new fabrics separately and never mix them with any other laundry. Bear in mind that coloured natural fibres may bleed. I would also recommend washing natural fibre fabrics of different colours separately from each other. Especially, when you are working with a fabric you have no previous experience with and thus are not sure how it will react to the first wash. You have no desire to destroy your new fabrics, do you? And you also do not want to prepare fabric for sewing by changing its colour 🙂
On the other hand, you may prefer to dry clean your garment when necessary. If so, this is the decisive factor for the fabric pre-treatment which is dry cleaning in such a case.
5. Create the perfect rectangle of fabric by pulling threads
a) Pull lengthwise thread
This is an important step when you prepare fabric for sewing. Start by clipping in between the selvedge line and your thread marking. Clip about 2 – 3 cm (about 1 inch) into the fabric.
Move the selvedge to the side and pick one of the threads along the selvedge. Hold the thread and move the rest of the fabric away from this tread. As if you were gathering fabric (see the image below).
If the thread breaks, pick a new one from the part with the selvedge line. As you pull the thread, a ‘path’ is being formed along the selvedge line (see the image d)).
a) Clip into the fabric along the selvedge line.
b) Pick a thread along the selvedge line.
c) Hold the thread you have picked and pull the fabric away from the thread.
d) Path created by pulling out the lengthwise thread.
e) Cut along the path created by the pulled out lengthwise thread.
b) Pull crosswise thread
The very same process applies to the crosswise grain (see the images below).
a) Clip into the fabric along the crossgrain (perpendicularly to the selvedge line).
b) Pick a thread along the crosswise grain.
c) Hold the thread you have picked and pull the fabric away from the thread.
d) Path created by pulling out a crosswise thread.
e) Cut along the path created by the pulled out crosswise thread.
After you have cut along lengthwise grain, removed the selvedge line and cut along the crosswise grain, you should end up with an almost perfect (or perfect, depending on the quality of the fabric) rectangle.
6. Press the fabric properly
Fabrics are usually wrinkled to some extent after washing, drying and pulling threads out of them. Press the fabric from the wrong side or use a pressing cloth from the right side of the fabric to prevent shine that can be caused by the hot iron.
Depending on your design fabric, you may use some steam, however, be moderate. NEVER IRON IT ON THE BIAS. Pressing the fabric on the bias may cause it to pucker or stretch in a way you don’t fancy at all.
7. Transfer the pattern pieces, cut and sew
Now that your fabric is properly prepared, transfer the pattern pieces to it, cut them out and finish your garment or another project. As you have an exact lengthwise edge of the fabric, measurements taken from this edge will be accurate as well.
Conclusion: How To Prepare Fabric For Sewing Projects?
To prepare fabric for your sewing project may take a little more time than you would like to, yet, it is worth doing in order to have a quality outcome. Remember, all things are difficult before they are easy. 🙂